Network Layer Protocols
Duration: 3(4) days

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Synopsis This course discusses the TCP/IP protocol stack - the driving force behind the Internet. Detailed discussions of layer II protocols (primarily Ethernet), the Internet Protocol (IPv4 and IPv6), Internet Control Messaging Protocol (ICMP), and the routing protocols RIPv2 and OSPF. This course also touches on advanced aspects of networking, such as QoS (Quality of Service) and Multicasting. In essence, this course is a journey up the OSI model - focusing on the Data Link, Network, and Transport layers. Detailed examples with a network analyzer (WireShark) provide students with a comprehensive view of all networking concepts, both basic and advanced. Additional hands on exercises allow the students to get a direct exposure to what goes on in the wire and air.
Target Audience System administrators, Network administrators, and individuals who need to design or work in IP-based networks
  • Explain the 7 layers of the OSI model
  • Describe the basic media types, wired and wireless
  • Explain in-depth Ethernet framing
  • Be familiar with the Spanning Tree Protocols (STP) for bridges and switches
  • Explain IPv4 Addressing, classes and subnets
  • Design an IPv4 network topology
  • Explain the advantages and challenges of IPv6
  • Describe the functionality of ICMP
  • Explain the differences between TCP and UDP
  • Explain the basics of routing protocols - distance vector and link state
Exercises (Optional)
1. Introduction
1 hours
This module refreshes the basic concepts of networking. Focusing on the OSI (7-layer) model, it details the functionality and responsibilities of each layer, and the multiple possible implementations. In particular, we discuss:
  • Basic networking concepts
    • The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model
      • Addressing - Unicast, Multicast and Broadcast
        • Packets and fragmentation
          2. Layer I: The Physical Layer
          1 hours
          Our first step up the OSI ladder is the Physical layer. This module explains the various media: Wired and Wireless, and explains basic concepts such as data encoding, multiplexing, and transmission. Topics include:
          • Media types: Wired vs. Wireless
            • Media classification: Private vs. shared
              • The wireless spectrum
                • Wired media: Copper-based vs. fiber
                  • Data encoding over wireless: modulation
                    • Data encoding over wired: pulses and Manchester encoding
                      • Media access: Division Multiplexing
                        3. Layer II: Data Link - and Ethernet
                        2 hours
                        Climbing up from the Physical, we next tackle the Data Link layer, and its most common implementation - Ethernet. Using Ethereal, we demonstrate common Ethernet implementations. In particular, we discuss:
                        • The role of Data Link: Framing, Checksumming and addressing
                          • Framing and MTU: runts, frames and jumbos
                            • Sample implementations: Frame Relay, ATM, FDDI (brief)
                              • De facto standard: Ethernet
                                • Ethernet cabling types: nnBaseXX...
                                  • Ethernet speeds: 10, 10/100, Gigabit and multi-Gigabit
                                    • Ethernet frame types: 802.2, 802.3, II and 802.11
                                      • Ethernet enhancements: 802.1p and 802.1q
                                        • Ethernet security: 802.1x
                                        4. Layer II switching & Bridging
                                        3 hours
                                        Still in Layer II, we tackle advanced aspects of switching and bridging. This module explains the aspects of Ethernet connectivity:
                                        • Topologies: Hubs, Bridges and Switches
                                          • Broadcast and collision domains
                                            • Bridging/Switching:
                                              • Responsibilities of a bridge/switch
                                                • Learning bridges
                                                  • The Spanning Tree Algorithm
                                                  • Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs), trunking and tagging
                                                    Day 2
                                                    5. Layer III and IP
                                                    2(3) hours
                                                    Stepping up from Layer II, we encounter the Network layer. Here, we find the most common implmentation - IPv4, and touch briefly on IPv6.
                                                    • Layer III responsibilities: Best effort packet routing
                                                      • IPv4:
                                                        • IPv4 addressing scheme
                                                          • IPv4 addressing classes
                                                            • IPv4 subnetting and network planning
                                                            • IPv6:
                                                              • Addressing the shortcomings of IPv4
                                                                • Why IPv6 is better
                                                                  • .. and why it is not..
                                                                  6. IP Packets
                                                                  2(4) hours
                                                                  Delving deeper into IPv4, we explore the IP header, in depth:
                                                                  • IP Header fields
                                                                    • Classes of services, and basic QoS
                                                                      • Handling fragmentation
                                                                        • Checksumming
                                                                          • IP Options
                                                                            • IPv6 headers vs. IPv4 headers
                                                                              • The sidekick: ICMP
                                                                                7. Advanced IP tricks
                                                                                1(2) hours
                                                                                This module explores the advanced concepts of IP addressing and routing - including:
                                                                                • IP-in-IP
                                                                                  • IP Tunneling
                                                                                    • Network Address Translation
                                                                                      • Multi Protocol Label Switching
                                                                                        • IP Header Compression
                                                                                          8. IP Routing
                                                                                          2(4) hours
                                                                                          IP merely provides an address space. The actual work is done by helper protocols. This module explores IP's worker protocols - in charge of the actual routing:
                                                                                          • IP routing concepts
                                                                                            • Routing Loops
                                                                                              • Routing algorithms: Link State vs. Distance Vector
                                                                                                • Distance Vector Protocols: RIP and RIPv2
                                                                                                  • Link State Protocols: OSPFv2
                                                                                                    • Hybrid Protocols: IGRP/EIGRP
                                                                                                      • Exterior Protocols: BGP/EGP-4
                                                                                                        Day 3
                                                                                                        9. QoS and Multicast
                                                                                                        2 hours
                                                                                                        IP routing is "best effort" with no guarantees. Enhancements for Quality of Service (QoS), however, provide an exciting array of options to allow for reliable routing and real-time performance. Additionally, multicasting in IPv4 allows for considerable bandwidth savings. In this module:
                                                                                                        • QoS Concepts
                                                                                                          • Differntiated Services
                                                                                                            • Integrated Services & RSVP
                                                                                                            • Multicast Concepts
                                                                                                              • Multicast savings
                                                                                                                • IGMP
                                                                                                                • Multicast Routing
                                                                                                                  • PIM (DM, SM)
                                                                                                                    • MOSPF
                                                                                                                    10. Transport Layer (I): UDP
                                                                                                                    1 hours
                                                                                                                    This module steps up to the transport layer, and focuses on its simpler implemntation, the User Datagram Protocol:
                                                                                                                    • Transport Layer responsibilities
                                                                                                                      • Implementation: UDP
                                                                                                                        • Simplicity in design: datagrams
                                                                                                                          • Unreliable, connection-less and message-oriented
                                                                                                                            • Uses of UDP
                                                                                                                            10. Transport Layer (II): TCP
                                                                                                                            4(6) hours
                                                                                                                            UDP is simple and effective, but unreliable. As a result, the protocol suite is known for its other implementation - TCP. We cover all aspects of TCP, including:
                                                                                                                            • Implementation: TCP
                                                                                                                              • Reliability via acknowledgment
                                                                                                                                • Stream-orientation and sequencing
                                                                                                                                  • The Packet structure
                                                                                                                                    • The TCP three way handshake
                                                                                                                                      • Connection Teardown: RST vs. FIN
                                                                                                                                        • TCP Windows
                                                                                                                                          • TCP Options